“But if the watchman see the sword come, and blow not the trumpet, and the people be not warned;

if the sword come, and take any person from among them, he is taken away in his iniquity;

but his blood will I require at the watchman's hand."

Ezekiel 33:6


"A righteous man falling down before the wicked is as a troubled fountain, and a corrupt spring."

Proverbs 25:26

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A Constitutional Report Card on the 10/18/2011 CNN/Western Republican Presidential Debate



On Tuesday, October 18, Republican candidates squared off in Las Vegas, Nevada, for the CNN/Western Republican Leadership Conference Debate hosted by Anderson Cooper, one of a series of primary debates for Republicans seeking their party’s nomination for President of the United States.
Today I am pleased to offer you another in our series of Constitutional Report Cards from these debates, the goal of which is to help you better understand the issues on the table and the positions represented by the respective candidates. In this report card, we have graded each of the candidates based on the fidelity of his or her answers to the United States Constitution.
 A downloadable PDF of this report card is available here  
(full report is also below).
The Bible reminds us that “my people are destroyed for lack of knowledge” (Hosea 4:6). When it comes to our God-blessed civic duty to cast our votes “in the fear of the Lord,” we must have knowledge. To do so we need to understand the standard. We also need the facts. Please remember to pray for us as we try to be faithful in bringing both to Christian families in our nation.
BACKGROUND: On October 18, 2011, seven Republican candidates squared off in a debate hosted by CNN and the Western Republican Leadership Conference. The purpose of this document is to provide a report card that will help Christian families evaluate the statements made by the candidates during that debate from a constitutional perspective. This report card is limited in its scope in that it only addresses issues specifically on the table during the October 18 debate. The scores are based on the actual statements made by the candidates during that debate. Candidates’ comments are taken at face value and evaluated without regard to their past statements or policy records, unless the candidates or those posing the questions specifically addressed the past statements and previous policy record of the candidate. Nothing in this report card should be construed as advocacy for a specific presidential candidate. The first act of every President is to swear an oath to uphold and defend the United States Constitution. This report card is intended to score each of the seven candidates, on the basis of their own answers, on whether or not their proposals, as stated, are in keeping with their duty to uphold and defend the United States Constitution, if they were elected as President of the United States.
During the debate, questions were taken from a live all-Republican audience, from Twitter, and from questions posted to CNN.com. The debate questions ranged from the proper role of religion on a candidates judgment to immigration and foreign aid. Jon Huntsman was the only Republican presidential candidate invited who did not attend the debate.
* Each candidate is scored on the basis of his or her answers in this debate alone. To score an (A), the candidate only need to provide an answer that will not in some way violate the United States Constitution.
I. Taxation
The Constitution of the United States grants Congress the power “to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts [a compulsory fee] and excises [a tax on the manufacturing, sales, or the consumption of goods within a country] shall be uniform throughout the United States” (Article 1, Section 8). In Article 1, Section 9, the Constitution originally prohibited any “capitation, or other direct, tax [to] be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration.” In other words, taxes were to be collected directly from the states and apportioned according to the size of the population of each state, and not according to the states’ overall revenue. In this manner, all states were to be taxed with equality.
The Sixteenth Amendment to the Constitution changed and expanded the taxing power by providing, “The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.” The Sixteenth Amendment allowed for the federal government to levy an income tax directly without regard to the population of the state. Many constitutional scholars still point out that the current graduated tax system is unconstitutional since it appropriates an uneven and non-uniform tax burden throughout the United States, contrary to Article 1, Section 8.
Question #1: What’s your position on replacing the federal income tax with a federal sales tax?

Governor Rick Perry (R-TX):

Gov. Perry criticized Herman Cain’s 9-9-9 plan as being unsupportable, since those residing in states that do not currently have a sales tax will not want a new tax, and that those who reside in states that already impose a sales tax will reject a federal tax that would double the sales tax already imposed. The Governor said that by the end of the week he planned to unveil a plan that makes taxes “flatter and fairer”.
Constitutional Grade: B
Remarks: Fairness is not a constitutional or biblical standard. However, a “flatter” tax would be constitutional if by “flatter” Gov. Perry means his plan will create equality in taxation.

Former Governor Mitt Romney (R-MA):

Former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney engaged Herman Cain and criticized his plan for compounding existing state sales taxes. He pointed out that middle class families would see a tax increase under the 9-9-9 plan. He proposed reducing the current tax imposed on employers in order to make it easier to make new hires and invest in America. Gov. Romney said that he wanted to reduce the tax burden on middle-income families. Finally, the Gov. Romney said he wanted to make sure federal regulations work to encourage growth in the private sector and said that America needed to strive toward energy independence.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: Gov. Romney’s 59-point plan reflects a commitment to the Marxist principles of class warfare.

Former Senator Rick Santorum (R-PA):

Sen. Santorum stated that Mr. Cain’s 9-9-9 Plan would increase taxes for up to 84% of all Americans, since it did not provide a standard deduction for lower income families. Sen. Santorum said that the plan included an income tax, a sales tax, and a value added tax, which is what Mr. Cain’s corporate tax truly is.
Sen. Santorum also criticized the plan because it did not “take care of families” by offering standard deductions.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: A tax deduction provides the ability to declare an item or an event non-taxable. Although Sen. Santorum is attempting to argue for a pro-family position, he is seeking to achieve a pro-family solution by means of an unconstitutional disproportionate taxation. In effect, he is arguing that the same items and events that are tax exempt for some groups of people are taxable for other groups of people. Sen. Santorum’s plan would favor certain groups of people over other groups of people and therefore reflects Marxist notions of class warfare.

Former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich (R-GA):

Former House Speaker Newt Gingrich said that Mr. Cain’s 9-9-9 Plan was bold, but that there were more complexities to the plan than Mr. Cain led on. Instead, Rep. Gingrich went on to say that he favored “very narrow, focused tax cuts such as zero capital gains, 100 percent expensing.”
Constitutional Grade: B
Remarks: While these tax cuts would not have a substantial impact on every taxpayer, it would provide equality in taxation.

U.S. Representative Michele Bachmann (R-MN):

Rep. Bachmann said the she was opposed to a federal sales tax because it would give Congress a new way to tax Americans. Moreover, Mr. Cain’s 9-9-9 Plan would include a hidden value-added tax, since a taxable event would occur at each stage of production. She also criticized Mr. Cain’s plan for not being a jobs plan. She said her plan included a tax plan, a jobs plan, and an energy plan that would turn the economy around.
She proposed that every American should pay some tax, even if it is one dollar, since every American benefits in some way from the federal government. She said that she would abolish the tax code and flatten the tax for all Americans.
Constitutional Grade: B

Businessman and Columnist Herman Cain:

Mr. Cain defended his plan by inviting the audience to read the plan on his website. He said that the plan was in fact a jobs plan, it was revenue neutral, and that it would not raise taxes. He alleged that his plan was being attacked because lobbyists, accountants, and politicians are opposed to throwing out the current tax code. He said that his plan did not include a value-added tax. He pointed out that his plan included “opportunity zones” to make sure that those with lower incomes would not be required to pay the same rate as the wealthy.
Mr. Cain claimed that the manner in which his plan was being accused of compounding existing state sales taxes was like comparing apples and oranges.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: The implementation of “Opportunity Zones” would create an inequality of taxation.

U.S. Representative Ron Paul (R-TX):

Rep. Paul stated that the 9-9-9 Plan was a dangerous and regressive tax. He proposed that the income tax should be abolished and should not be replaced with anything. Rep. Paul pointed out that federal spending was itself a tax, since everything spent eventually returns in the form of a tax. “Sometimes we put a direct tax on the people. Sometimes we borrow the money, and sometimes we print the money.” He then proposed a plan that would balance the budget and cut one trillion dollars out of the federal budget in his first year in office.
Constitutional Grade: A
II. Job Creation
The Constitution of the United States grants Congress a limited number of powers, under Article 1, Section 8 that residually affect industry and the national economy. First, Congress has the power over the federal purse under the taxing and spending clause. Second, Congress is granted the power to regulate interstate commerce between the states. Under the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, the commerce power was unconstitutionally expanded to include intrastate commerce also, along with virtually any commercial or non-commercial activity that could be shown to remotely affect commerce. This unconstitutional expansion of power has been used by Congress to regulate areas previously unreachable by the federal government under the Constitution. Third, Congress has the authority to exclusively regulate special areas of law such as maritime law, bankruptcy law, copyright law, and patent law. Finally, Congress has the sole authority to coin money and fix standards for weights and measures. A constitutional response to this question would require the candidates to affirm fidelity to the limitation of the federal government and to commit to widespread deregulation and defunding of those programs, which are not clearly within the grant of power given to the federal government by the Constitution.
Question #2: Will Governor Romney’s 59-point plan create more jobs?

Governor Rick Perry (R-TX):

Gov. Perry stated that the most pressing issue was getting Americans back to work. Gov. Perry proposed creating jobs by tapping into natural resources such as petroleum, natural gas, and coal that are native to America. He suggested that this move would create 1.2 millions jobs and would bring energy independence to America for the next 300 years.
Constitutional Grade: C
Remarks: While Gov. Perry’s plan would focus on deregulation, it does not go far enough. On a more positive note, his plan also calls for an end to federal subsidies and issue-specific tax deductions throughout the energy sector.

Former Governor Mitt Romney (R-MA):

Gov. Romney said that he agreed with Gov. Perry about the need to create jobs through energy independence. He also said that jobs could be created elsewhere by bringing manufacturing back to the United States. To achieve these things, Gov. Romney said he would call for tax reform, regulatory reform, education reform, trade reform, and would balance the federal budget. He said these reforms would begin with the repeal of ObamaCare.
Gov. Romney defended RomneyCare by pointing out that the people in Massachusetts liked it by a 3-1 margin. He said that while his plan did not lower the cost of healthcare in Massachusetts, it was a problem that should be confronted at the national level and that he intended to do that. He further pointed out that RomneyCare relied on private insurers, and for 93% of those people insured, nothing had changed. He suggested that each state should come up with its own solution.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: Gov. Romney’s 59-point reflects many of the same socialist and uconstitutional commitments that he commonly criticizes President Obama for. Moreover, Gov. Romney has been unwavering in his support of socialized medicine on the state level.

Former Senator Rick Santorum (R-PA):

Sen. Santorum agreed with both Gov. Perry and Gov. Romney about the need for energy independence and added that the next President needed to create “income mobility” by bringing manufacturing back to America. Sen. Santorum said that he would make real changes to the tax code and abolish the corporate tax. He said he would also reform the regulations placed on manufacturing and replace them with regulations they could work with. He accused Gov. Romney for hypocrisy for saying that he would repeal ObamaCare when RomneyCare in the Massachusetts had been the basis for ObamaCare. 
 He pointed out that Gov. Romney had created “a top-down, government-run program” that was focused on health care access instead of controlling costs.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: Sen. Santorum’s job plan is industry specific and would not end to unconstitutional regulation on industry, but only scale it back. The idea of creating “income mobility” cannot be achieved by government, but only by individuals who take advantage of a free market.
III. Healthcare
The Constitution of the United States does not grant authority to any branch of government to fix the price of health care. Much of the dialogue surrounding the provision or subsidizing of health care is predicated on the assumption that the government has plenary power to regulate any industry. It is a utilitarian effort to promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people. As mentioned before, Congress is granted the power to regulate interstate commerce between the states. However, the application of the commerce power to regulate private industry and fix prices and services is an unconstitutional expansion of congressional power.
Question #3: If Obama’s healthcare plan is bad for the United States, then what is the alternative?

Governor Rick Perry (R-TX):

When the moderator called attention to the fact that the State of Texas had one of the highest rates of uninsured individuals, Gov. Perry responded that Texas has one of the finest healthcare systems in the world. Gov. Perry inferred that the reason for the high rate of uninsured individuals in Texas was due to the huge influx of illegal immigration in Texas.
Constitutional Grade: B
Remarks: Mr. Perry says that Texas has “one of the finest healthcare systems in the world”. While he answering question about health care on the state level, there is a huge amount of federal and state government oversight of the medical industry, which would make it far from a model healthcare system.

Businessman and Columnist Herman Cain:

Mr. Cain said that everyone agreed that ObamaCare needed to be repealed. He said he would implement a bill introduced in 2009 called H.R. 3400. It is a “market-centered, market-driven, patient-centered” reform that would allow for association health plans, create loser pay laws, and allow insurance products to be sold across state lines. He said the plan would allow doctors and patients to work together and keep healthcare decisions out of the hands of the government.
Constitutional Grade: C
Remarks: While H.R. 3400 would deregulate much of the healthcare industry, it would also create new regulations in the industry.

U.S. Representative Ron Paul (R-TX):

Rep. Paul stated that he would not keep any part of ObamaCare because it is merely an expansion of big government. He pointed out that while other candidates have been arguing about how government can best manage healthcare, he wanted to get the government out of healthcare. When the government gets involved in healthcare the prices always rise. “We have Medicare, we have prescription drug programs, and we have Medicaid. But if you want better competition and better health care, you should allow the American people to opt out of government medicine.”
Constitutional Grade: A

Former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich (R-GA):

Rep. Gingrich criticized Gov. Romney for his support of RomneyCare saying it was a big government, top down approach. He pointed out that RomneyCare would not have worked in any other state since Massachusetts had received a lavish amount of federal funding from the Bush administration for the experiment. He called attention to the fact that the state of Massachusetts was currently suing small businesses, because their insurance was inadequate. Rep. Gingrich suggested that the problems surrounding health care should be solved by supporting a solution that encourages doctors, employers, and families to work out a plan from the ground up.
Gov. Romney said that he had received the idea for an individual mandate from Newt Gingrich and the Heritage Foundation. Rep. Gingrich denied this allegation and said that RomneyCare was broader than what had been suggested.
Constitutional Grade: C
Remarks: Rep. Gingrich is being disingenuous, as he has defended Romney’s handling of health care in Massachusetts in the past, and for many years Gingrich was a proponent of an individual mandate, as Gov. Romney noted, which is a part of both RomneyCare and ObamaCare.

U.S. Representative Michele Bachmann (R-MN):

Rep. Bachmann pointed out that ObamaCare is so unpopular that even the Obama administration refuses to implement all of it when they attempted to throw out the CLASS Act because it was too expensive. She said that she would repeal ObamaCare.
Constitutional Grade: A
IV. Immigration
The Constitution of the United States grants authority to Congress to establish a uniform rule of naturalization (Article 1, Section 8). The President of the United States is duty-bound to enforce the rule of law as established by Congress. Section one of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States reads, “All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” Therefore, anyone born in the United State and is subject to the jurisdiction of the United States is a citizen of the United States. The Congress of the United States has constitutional authority over matters of national defense. The construction of a wall along the border of the United States would be a Constitutional exercise of the congressional defense power.
Question #4: As President, will you order completion of the physical border fence along the entire border between the U.S. and Mexico?

Governor Rick Perry (R-TX):

Gov. Perry said that building a fence would take too long and cost too much. He suggested that a better way of securing the border was to build a virtual defense zone with strategic fencing and placing troops on the ground along the border. He also suggested the use of predator drones that would send information to the troops on the ground. Gov. Perry pointed out that he had spent $400 million out of the Texas State budget on border control.
Gov. Perry said the Federal Government had failed at border security; that illegal immigrants were coming to the United States because they are looking for jobs. Perry stated that those who hire illegal immigrants should be penalized. He also alleged that Gov. Romney had lost all credibility on this issue because he hired illegal immigrants at his home.
Gov. Perry said that he had been strong on immigration. He contrasted himself with Gov. Romney pointing out that the Massachusetts Governor had supported amnesty; he had always opposed it as governor of Texas
Constitutional Grade: B

Former Governor Mitt Romney (R-MA):

Gov. Mitt Romney defended himself on the immigration issue by pointing out that at no time did he hire illegals, but hired a lawn care company who hired illegal immigrants. He said that when he found out that the lawn care company continued to hire illegal workers after he had asked them not to do so, he fired the company. Gov. Romney said it was hard for homeowners to know if subcontractors are hiring illegal immigrants. This is the reason he said he supported an E-verify system which would make it tough on employers to hire illegal immigrants. He said that during his time as governor he took action to empower state police to enforce immigration laws.
Gov. Romney then pointed out that Gov. Perry had refused to build a fence along the border. In addition, Gov. Perry signed into law state tuition benefits for illegal immigrants. Romney stated that states like California and Florida have seen virtually no increase in immigration during a time when Texas has seen a 60% increase in immigration. Gov. Romney pointed out that Gov. Perry had once written and op-ed piece in which he said that he was open to amnesty.
Gov. Romney said that every person on the stage supported legal immigration. He pointed out that 4.5 million individuals are in line to complete the process of legal immigration, and that is why we need to stop illegal immigration. He said that he supported building a fence, placing enough border control agents along the border, and implementing an E-verify system. He also said he would cut off taxpayer subsidized incentives for illegal immigrants to come to the United States.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: The E-Verify system would create an unconstitutional federal police tool and would place restrictions on hiring for all Americans. It would be equivalent to a national I.D. act. Moreover, there are serious questions with regard to whether or not Congress has the power to police illegal immigration in the states in addition to establishing a means of legally immigrating. The restriction placed on the hiring practices of business may fall within the police power of the state.

U.S. Representative Michele Bachmann (R-MN):

Rep. Bachmann suggested that the person who really has a problem with illegal immigration was President Obama. She criticized him for allowing his own uncle and aunt to stay in the United States illegally. She said that she had been the first of the candidates to sign a pledge to construct double-walled fence along the border by a certain date. She pointed out that illegal immigration is hurting job growth, costs the Federal Government $113 billion annually, and costs state governments $82 billion annually. Each household pays $1,000 annually for illegal immigration. Rep. Bachmann also said that she would enforce English as a second language and every immigrant would have to agree not to take taxpayer-subsidized benefits.
Constitutional Grade: A

Businessman and Columnist Herman Cain:

Mr. Cain said that he would secure the border by building a fence, using technology effectively, as well as placing troops on the ground in more dangerous areas. He said that he supported existing paths to citizenships and that the federal Government needs to “Shut the back door so people can come in through the front door.” He expressed the need to clean up the bureaucracy in Washington and to enforce the laws already on the books by empowering the states to enforce those laws.
Constitutional Grade: A
Question #5: We have 50 million Latinos in the United State and not all of them are illegal. What is the message from you guys to the Latino community?

Former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich (R-GA):

Rep. Gingrich pointed out that most Latinos in the United States aren’t immigrants, but have been born in the United States and desire what all Americans want: a growing economy, jobs, access to affordable healthcare, education, national security, and a better future for there children. Therefore, the message was the same for every ethnic group.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: Mr. Gingrich does not confront the issue that many of the government benefits he listed are unconstitutional exercises of the federal government’s power.

U.S. Representative Ron Paul (R-TX):

Rep. Paul stated that he did not support the building of a fence and that a fence is symbolic of the idea that immigration laws were anti-Latino. The congressman said that the immigration problem is undergirded by incentives and mandates from the federal government requiring the states to provide things like free education. These incentives must be removed. He also stated that there should be an increase in the number of border guards on the border, but pointed out that many of the resources that could be used to secure the border domestically are being used to secure the borders of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
He criticized the current political dialogue of dividing individuals into groups. “They penalize people because they’re in groups, and then they reward people because they’re in groups.” He agreed with Mr. Gingrich that the message needed to be the same for every one, and that there needed to be dialog with individuals and not groups. The group mentality needed to melt away and people needed to be treated as individuals, meaning, “their liberties are protected as individuals and they’re treated that way, and they’re never penalized that way.” He alleged that there is a lot of discrimination throughout the court systems and that “minorities come up with a short hand in our court system.”
Congressman Paul explained, “rights don’t come in bunches. Rights come as individuals, they come from a God, and they come as each individual has a right to life and liberty.” 


Constitutional Grade: A
Remarks: Congressman Paul upholds the constitutional position by calling for the repeal of unconstitutional entitlement programs for illegal immigrants.

Businessman and Columnist Herman Cain:

Mr. Cain answered that his message to “latinos, blacks, whites, and all Americans is boosting this economy, which is on life support.” He appealed to his 9-9-9 Plan as being a reason to hope and said he would fight for his plan as President of the United States.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: Mr. Cain offers his 9-9-9 Plan as the “reason for hope”, but as mentioned earlier, his plan would provide an unequal rate of taxation.

Former Senator Rick Santorum (R-PA):

Sen. Santorum pointed out that not one person mentioned the issue of family, faith, and marriage as being central to the message to the Latino community, even though these are common themes in the Latino community. He criticized Congressman Paul for emphasizing the individual and said that the family was the basic unit of society. He said that “the family in America and faith in America is being crushed by the courts and our government, and someone has to stand up and fight for those institutions.”
Constitutional Grade: A
Remarks: Sen. Santorum was talking past Congressman Paul on this issue. Rep. Paul made a statement about the constitutional grant of liberty in which God endows every individual with certain unalienable rights. Sen. Santorum is referring to liberty as it pertains to the basic unit of society, which is the family. Both are right. The family is the basic unit of society, but each individual has been endowed by his Creator with certain unalienable rights.
Question #6: Do you support a repeal of the Fourteenth Amendment as it pertains to granting citizenship for all children born in the United States?

Governor Rick Perry (R-TX):

Gov. Perry said that he did not support a repeal of the Fourteenth Amendment. He said the real issue was getting Americans working again. He made an appeal to his energy plan which would allow jobs to grow. He criticized President Obama for confounding the energy problems in America.
Constitutional Grade: A

U.S. Representative Michele Bachmann (R-MN):

Rep. Bachmann said that the Fourteenth Amendment, as it pertains to granting citizenship to children born in the United States, did not have to be dealt with constitutionally, but could be dealt with legislatively. She pointed out that many illegal immigrants cross the border to receive government benefits and have deliver children so that those benefits attach to the child.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: The Fourteenth Amendment, section one states, “All persons born or naturalized in the United States.... are citizens of the United States.... No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States.” The Constitution may not be amended or circumvented by a legislative act.
V. State’s Rights and Domestic Policy
The Constitution of the United States only authorizes the United States to carry out a limited number of functions. If the federal government exercises a power that is not specifically authorized in the United States Constitution, the exercise of government power is invalid. The Tenth Amendment of the Constitution states, “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.” This gives the states a broader grant of authority that it grants to the Federal Government. However, the Tenth Amendment limited the power granted to the states by excluding those powers prohibited by the Constitution. The Constitution guarantees that the states must establish “a republican form of government, which is a government that is established to secure the right to life, liberty, property. While the Constitution promotes “State’s Rights”, those rights reserved for the state are not absolute; States are prohibited from depriving the people of those rights to life liberty and property, which are inalienable.
Question #7: Do you support opening the national nuclear repository at Yucca Mountain?

Former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich (R-GA):

Rep. Gingrich pointed out that he had worked on the issue while he was Speaker of the House. He suggested that the scientific community must look into the question. He said that at some point America needs a safe method of disposing of nuclear waste. When pressed Rep. Gingrich pointed out that Yucca Mountain was chosen by the scientific community as the safest place in the United States.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: Forcing the State of Nevada to become a depository for nuclear waste would constitute a violation of the Nevada’s state sovereignty.

U.S. Representative Ron Paul (R-TX):

Rep/ Paul stated that he has always been opposed to opening a nuclear repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. He said that the issue was an issue about state’s rights. He asked, “What right do 49 states have to punish one state” by making their state a depository for garbage. He went further to say that the government shouldn’t be in the business of subsidizing any form of energy and should allow the free market to decide how to properly deal with these issues.
Constitutional Grade: A

Former Governor Mitt Romney (R-MA):

Gov. Romney said he believed that Congressman Paul was right. The State of Nevada should not be forced by 49 other states to take nuclear waste. Gov. Romney suggested that the free market should decide and that states should be allowed to choose their own locations and set their own prices for taking the nuclear waste of other states.
Constitutional Grade: A

Governor Rick Perry (R-TX):

Gov. Perry said he agreed with Rep. Paul and Gov. Romney. He pointed out that France received over 70% of its energy from nuclear power. He also stated that this was a state’s right issue.
Perry said it was time for a discussion of the scope and importance of the Tenth Amendment, which has been eroded by Washington, D.C.
Constitutional Grade: A
VI. Housing and Federal Subsidies
The Constitution of the United States only authorizes the United States government to carry out a limited number of functions. If the Federal government exercises a power that is not specifically authorized in the United States Constitution, the exercise of government power is invalid. Article 1, Section 8, provides, “Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States.” This is known as the taxing and spending clause. Money raised by Congress may only be allocated for a limited number of purposes and may only be used to finance a legitimate constitutional function of federal government. There are no provisions that grant Congress the authority to promote the advancement of industry by the provision of monetary grants or subsidies. Moreover, the Constitution of the United States does not grant authority to any branch of government to fix the price of housing, to subsidize banks, or to regulate interest rates for mortgage loans. This question is predicated on the assumption that the government has plenary power to regulate any sector that it pleases to promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Congress is granted the power to regulate interstate commerce between the states. However, the application of the commerce power to regulate private industry and fix prices and services is an unconstitutional expansion of congressional power.
Question #8: What would you do as President to help fix the overall problem of real estate and foreclosures in America?

Former Senator Rick Santorum (R-PA):

Sen. Santorum pointed out that Gov. Perry, Gov. Romney, and Mr. Cain had all supported TARP which had worsened the market. The former senator elaborated, “People who did things that were wrong invested in things, took risks, were bailed out, and the folks who acted responsibly are now getting hurt because their houses have gone down in value.” Sen. Santorum said that the Federal Government should not have bailed out Wall Street but should have instead let the market work itself out.
Constitutional Grade: A

Governor Rick Perry (R-TX):

Gov. Perry defended himself, stating that he did not in fact support TARP. Instead he alleged he wrote a letter which called Congress to take action, but the action he was referring to was deregulation and tax reform.
Constitutional Grade: C
Remarks: In October of 2008, a letter was published by the Republican Governors Association signed by Gov. Perry which contained the following: “We strongly urge Congress to leave partisanship at the door and pass an economic recovery package.” He later wrote a second letter that contradicted the first.

Former Governor Mitt Romney (R-MA):

Gov. Romney said that elected officials in Washington too often think they know better than the markets. He criticized the “cash for clunkers” program and government subsidies for homebuyers, along with bailouts for banks were failures. He said that government needed to get out of the way and allow the free market to work. He said that was what he had laid out in his plan.
Constitutional Grade: B

Businessman and Columnist Herman Cain:

Mr. Cain explained that during the economic crisis that hit at the end of 2008, he supported the idea of TARP. However, he stated that he did not realize the direction the administration was going to take when it implemented the legislation. He also stated that government needed to get out of the way and allow the free market to work itself out. He proposed to reform Dodd-Frank and reform other regulations that have gotten in the way of economic recovery.
Constitutional Grade: C

U.S. Representative Michele Bachmann (R-MN):

Rep. Bachmann said that she empathized with mothers who are losing their homes and whose husbands have lost their jobs. She criticized President Obama for failing on the housing issue. She said that she would not fail, but would get the economy moving again and create jobs.
Constitutional Grade: B
Question #9: How do you explain the Occupy Wall-Street movement, and how does it factor into your message?

Businessman and Columnist Herman Cain:

Mr. Cain explained that he understood that the protesters were frustrated, but that their anger was directed in the wrong place. He said the real problems were due to the failed economic plans in Washington. They should be camped out in front of the White House, explained Mr. Cain, but he stands by them.
In response to criticism from Rep. Paul, Mr. Cain conceded that the banks and businessman on Wall Street were partly to blame, but that these did not have any power to make things better. The White House is the source of the problem, that that is where protesters should go.
Constitutional Grade: A

U.S. Representative Ron Paul (R-TX):

Rep. Paul criticized Mr. Cain for blaming the victims. He said that Washington and Wall Street were both to blame. In addition, he said that the Occupy protestors should also be at the Federal Reserve, because this agency was responsible for the market bubbles that caused the economic crisis. He also called attention to the fact that the bailouts were bipartisan and cannot be blamed on the current administration alone. The banks and corporations of Wall Street were the beneficiaries of the bailouts that made a bad situation worst. As a result, the middle class lost their jobs and homes.
Rep. Paul explained that government was not competent to manage almost anything and that people should not place their trust in the government to fix things. The government has to deal with fraud, but in this case the government was involved in the fraud. Rep. Paul pointed to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac as examples, and said that none of those responsible have lost their jobs or been held accountable, but these protesters have fallen victim to their mistakes.
Constitutional Grade: A
Remarks: Essentially, Rep. Paul and Mr. Cain agree, but the Congressman expands on Mr. Cain’s answer and points out that the corruption at the Federal Reserve and on Wall Street are also to blame for the grievances raised by Occupy.

Former Governor Mitt Romney (R-MA):

Gov. Romney avoided talking about the cause of the collapse, but said that the focus should be placed on the past three years under the Obama Administration. He criticized President Obama for being an utter failure. He said the current president had no idea how the private sector worked or how to create jobs. As a result, 25 million Americans are out of work and many are losing their houses. Gov. Romney also pointed out that median income in America has dropped 10 percent during the past three years. He proposed that America needed a President who was familiar with the way the economy worked.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: Gov. Romney is playing party politics and ignores the fault of the unconstitutional actions of the previous Republican Administration, which greatly contributed to our current economic instability.
VII. God and Government
The Constitution of the United States prohibits the United States Congress from making any “law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.” This prohibition included in the First Amendment of the United States Constitution was intended to be a limitation only on Congress. It was not intended to apply to the states, which at the time of its passage and afterwards, had establishments of Christian denominations. The language does not prohibit the establishment or free exercise of any other person, assembly, or government body outside of Congress. The provision was intended to secure religious liberty among Christian denominations that had been persecuted prior to the American War for Independence. The amendment prohibits Congress from establishing a state religion. The amendment was not intended to separate faith from law or God from government.
Moreover, the First Amendment is not a statement of pluralism or toleration, but is a statement of prohibition. Pluralism is a modern phenomenon in the United States and is not an idea that would have been accepted by the Founders. Since God establishes both government and law, they are each inherently religious. The separation of God from state is impossible. Moreover, the American Founders never referred to God as an invention of mankind or an inconsequential aberration of a pluralistic culture. God is revered as the Sovereign ruler of nations, the Creator and Lord of all mankind, and the source of inalienable rights.
Question #10: Should faith shape a candidates’ political stance? Does a candidate’s religious beliefs matter?

Former Senator Rick Santorum (R-PA):

Sen. Santorum said that he believed that voters should pay attention to a candidate’s values. Santorum stated that a candidate’s faith and what that faith teaches, and the morals and values that are reflected in that person’s belief structure should matter to voters. The former senator stated that he was a Catholic and that the Catholic Church had a social teaching, and a standard of right and wrong. He said these issues were legitimate things for voters to look at. However, he said that what a person believes about “the road to salvation” is not applicable to the role of being president, a senator, or any job.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: Morals, values, and ethics are not the same things. Morals and values are often unethical, because they are opposed to the Law of God. Mr. Santorum attempts to separate the “road to salvation” from the very gospel (teachings) of Jesus Christ. Yet, he fails to account for the fact that when God saves an individual, the transformation from the old man to a new man in Christ is outwardly reflected in the life of that individual. There is nothing good or moral apart from salvation through Christ. If a man’s relationship with God and the shaping of his moral character are to have definitive influence on his political discernment, then the “road to salvation” is the most important consideration. An improper road leads to a false faith, a false faith leads to a false morality, and a false morality provides no foundation for sound judgment. Santorum falls short of a constitutional standard since he appeals to a standard of pluralism and religious neutrality, which is not reflected in the Constitution of the United States.

Former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich (R-GA):

Rep. Gingrich said that he believed that faith did matter. He pointed out that America is founded on truths that men are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights. He also cited the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which says religion, morality and knowledge matter. The former speaker then proceeded to say that no one should rush to judgment about the way someone else approaches God.
Rep. Gingrich explained that faith played a central role to how one would approach public life. He explained that he would be worried if someone assured him that nothing in their faith would affect their judgment, because he would have to wonder what their judgment was based on. “And how can I trust you with power if you don’t pray? Who you pray to, how you pray, how you come close to God is between you and God.”
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: Every man who has ever drawn breath is inescapably religious. The question is not whether or not a man allows his morality to influence his judgment, but rather what faith will influence his judgment. Following out Rep. Gingrich’s reasoning, it would not make any difference if the God a candidate prayed to was Molech, and that the way in which he came to God was by sacrificing his children; after all, it is between him and his god. It is an irrational fallacy to say it does not matter how you pray or whom you pray to, so long as you pray. The way a civil magistrate prays and the God to whom he owes absolute obedience has everything to do with how his political decisions will be influenced. Rep. Gingrich is wrong to suppose that the United States Constitution is a pluralistic document.

Governor Rick Perry (R-TX):

Gov. Perry said that he could not be separated from his faith anymore than he could be separated from the fact that he was the son of a tenant farmer. He said that he did not agree that Gov. Romney was not a Christian or that Mormonism was a cult. He said the real issue is whether or not a candidate is going to stand by their faith. The governor appealed to the Founding Fathers’ understanding of the freedom of religion and said these values are important as we go forward. Gov. Perry said that freedom of religion should not be taken away by any means, but that the Pastor Jeffress was free to express his opinion. Mr. Perry again reemphasized that he did not agree with Pastor Jeffress statements, and said that the person who the American people have lost faith in the current resident of the White House.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: Gov. Perry also appeals to a pluralistic/polytheistic constitutional standard. What is more troubling is when Perry says “the real issue is whether or not a candidate was going to stand by their faith,” but then with the same breath proved that he was not among those candidates. When he disagreed with the comments made by Pastor Jeffress, he was in effect saying that he did not agree that Gov. Romney was not a Christian or that Mormonism was a cult. But, the God and Christ of Christianity is not the same God and Christ taught by Mormonism. The core teachings and practice of Mormonism are so far removed from the essential doctrines of Christianity as to make it is impossible for a Mormon to properly be considered a Christian. There is no salvation in the false religion of Mormonism.

Former Governor Mitt Romney (R-MA):

Gov. Romney said that he had heard worse comments with regard to his Mormonism. But what had troubled him most was the idea that a nominee should be chosen on the basis of his particular religious belief, and that it was not enough that the candidate was a “good moral person.” He claimed that America’s Founders went so far as to place in the Constitution “that we would not choose people who represent us in government based upon their religion.” He said the idea that other faiths would be respected, that there would be a plurality of faiths, and that other faiths should be tolerated was a bedrock principle. He suggested that Pastor Jeffress should have been told that, we should not select people based upon their faith. He said that the concept that voters would select someone based on the church or the synagogue they go to is a very dangerous and an enormous departure from the principles of our Constitution.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: There is no salvation, no moral standing with God, apart from salvation by grace through faith alone in Jesus Christ. A good moral person cannot not exist apart the salvific work of Jesus Christ. Gov. Romney’s response to the question is the most egregious in terms of his treatment of the Constitution. There is absolutely nothing in the constitution that would prohibit voters from, choosing “people who represent [them] in government based upon their religion.” The First Amendment is not a statement of pluralism or toleration, but is a statement of prohibition. It is a prohibition on Congress alone and was not intended to apply in any way to any other person, assembly, or government body outside of Congress. America’s Founders were men of firm Christian conviction. There is nothing in the Constitution by which to make modern notions of pluralism a “bedrock principle”. Therefore, the claim that if voters selected a candidate based on religion, it would constitute a dangerous and an enormous departure from the principles of our Constitution is completely untrue.
VIII. Military Spending and National Defense
The Constitution of the United States grants both the Executive Branch and Congress the power to engage in foreign policy. The power to declare war is reserved solely to Congress. While the president is Commander in Chief of the armed forces, he does not have the authority to declare war or to engage in international conflicts without a declaration of war issued by Congress. Congress may raise and support armies, but no appropriation for that purpose shall be for a term longer than two years. According to Article 1, Section 8, Congress also has the sole power “To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions; and to provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the Militia. . . .” A war or conflict occurring without an act from Congress is unconstitutional. The Constitution provides no authority to provide foreign nations with social welfare. The principles outlined in the Constitution favor a non-interventionist approach to foreign affairs.
Question #11: Currently there’s a deficit reduction measure to cut defense spending by $500 billion. Would you support such a reduction in defense spending? And if elected President, how will you provide a strong national defense?

U.S. Representative Michele Bachmann (R-MN):

Rep. Bachmann called attention to the attempted assassination by Iran of the Saudi ambassador on American soil, the fact that President Obama had deployed troops to a fourth theater of war, and that the 5,000 troops remaining in Iraq will not be granted diplomatic immunity. She cited these as examples of how the United States has lost respect under the foreign policies of President Obama. Rep. Bachmann suggested that the United States needed to stand up to Iran.
She said that a cut to military spending was on the table, but said it could not be cut by as much as $500 billion.
Constitutional Grade: C
Remarks: While an attempt to assassinate a foreign diplomat on American soil is grounds for bringing diplomatic sanctions against Iran, it is not necessarily grounds for military intervention. The Constitution of the United States and the foreign policy adopted from the founders was a non-interventionist approach to foreign policy. The United States has become a target throughout the world because America has abandoned its policy of non-intervention.

Former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich (R-GA):

Rep. Gingrich said that the super committee was an example of how broken Washington is. He said that the committee was made up of “a bunch of historically illiterate politicians who have no sophistication about national security.” He suggested that government should identify the threat, determine the best strategy to respond to the threat, and then determine the infrastructure and cost of those strategies. He pointed out that he had helped to start the Military Reform Caucus and said to “put the security of the United States up against some arbitrary budget number is suicidal stupid.”
Constitutional Grade: C
Remarks: Rep. Gingrich’s answer reflects an interventionist approach to foreign conflicts that is in violation of the Constitution.

U.S. Representative Ron Paul (R-TX):

Rep. Paul said that he would not cut defense, but would enhance it. He pointed out that a huge percentage of the military budget had nothing to do with defense. He said that America is not safer for keeping troops in Korea, Japan, or Germany, especially when America must borrow money to station them there. He said that candidates should not be as concerned about military spending as they should be about the debt bubble that is about to implode. Rep. Paul said that a cut to military spending is wise and that America would be safer if it were not stretched out in so many places. He said America had become an empire we cannot afford.
Constitutional Grade: A
Remarks: Rep. Paul continues to suggest a plan that would withdraw the unconstitutional occupation of American troops throughout the world.
IX. Foreign Policy
The Constitution of the United States grants both the Executive Branch and Congress the power to engage in Foreign policy. The power to declare war is reserved solely to Congress. While the President is Commander in Chief of the armed forces, he does not have the authority to declare war or to engage in international conflicts without a declaration of war issued by Congress. Congress may raise and support armies, but no appropriation for that purpose shall be for a term longer than two years. Power over the federal budget, expenditures, and debts are vested solely in the Congress of the United States. The Constitution provides no authority to provide foreign nations with social welfare. The principles outlined in the Constitution favor a non-interventionist approach to foreign affairs.
Question #12: Given that Israel has just negotiated with Palestine for a soldier, would any of you negotiate for a hostage?

Businessman and Columnist Herman Cain:

Mr. Cain said that he would have to understand the whole situation, but that his policy would be not to negotiate with terrorists. He said that Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu had took a lot of things into consideration and, on the surface, no one should judge whether he did the right thing or not.
Constitutional Grade: A

Former Senator Rick Santorum (R-PA):

Sen. Santorum said that he would never negotiate with terrorists. In response to Rep. Paul, Sen. Santorum said he would not cut a penny of military spending. He said the first course of government was to protect and defend the American border, and to “make sure that when we engage in foreign countries, we do so to succeed.” He criticized the Obama Administration for having political objectives and no plans for success. Sen. Santorum agreed with Rep. Bachmann that Iran was America’s biggest threat.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: Sen. Santorum’s answer reflects his interventionist philosophy in which the question of whether or not a war or military conflict is Constitutional is secondary to the questions of how to achieve success. Not only is such an approach by a President of the United States unconstitutional; it is also tyrannical and immoral.

U.S. Representative Ron Paul (R-TX):

Rep. Paul defended his position by calling attention to the expenditures oversees for 900 bases spread throughout 150 nations, saying it was economic suicide. He pointed out that America had more weapons than any other nation; enough weapons to blow up the entire world 20 to 25 times over. He said that the position taken by Sen. Santorum—that America needed to spend more and more and can’t cut a penny—is the reason the nation is at an economic impasse.
Rep. Paul said he wanted to hear one of his opponents talk about making cuts to something real: “This budget is in bad shape and the financial calamity is going to be much worse than anybody ever invading this country.”
Constitutional Grade: A
Question #13: The American people are suffering in our country right now. Why do we continue to send foreign aid to other countries when we need all the help we can get for ourselves?

Governor Rick Perry (R-TX):

Gov. Perry said it was time for Americans to have a real debate about foreign aid. He said it was time for Americans to have a serious discussion about defunding the United Nations.
Constitutional Grade: A
Remarks: The United Nations (U.N.) is an organization that unconstitutionally compromises the sovereignty of the United States. The United States Constitution clearly establishes the Constitution, the laws of Congress and Treaties ratified by Congress as the supreme laws of the land. The U.N. violates the sovereignty of member nations by attempting to enforce global social reforms by pressuring members into signing and enforcing treaties. There is no grant of authority in the Constitution which would allow for the funding the U.N.

Former Governor Mitt Romney (R-MA):

Gov. Romney said that foreign aid had several elements. The first element was defense. A second element is humanitarian aid and a third element allows America to carry out military operations around the world. He said he was opposed to borrowing money for humanitarian aid efforts.
Gov. Romney said that he would bring discretionary spending back to 2008 levels. He said he would give Medicaid to the states and grow it 1 to 2 percent per year. He said that he would cut federal employment by 10 percent. Finally, he would cut the salaries of federal employees to the rate earned by employees doing the same jobs in the private sector.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: Once more, Gov. Romney fails to point out that the level of discretionary spending for foreign aid was ridiculously high in 2008. The lavish government spending under George W. Bush is partly responsible for the current economic crisis. Moreover, Gov. Romney would impose Medicaid on the states and grow it by 1 to 2 percent per year. Discretionary spending for foreign aid and Medicare are both without Constitutional authority.

U.S. Representative Ron Paul (R-TX):

Rep. Paul stated that foreign aid should be the easiest thing to cut from the budget. He rightly pointed out that foreign aid is not authorized in the Constitution. The congressman said that he would cut off all foreign aid. He said that foreign aid does not help the nations, but rather makes them dependent, and these nations should be given their sovereignty back.
Concerning negotiating with terrorists Rep. Paul asked his opponents if they were willing to condemn Ronald Reagan for exchanging weapons for hostages out of Iran?
Constitutional Grade: A

U.S. Representative Michele Bachmann (R-MN):

Rep. Bachmann said that the United States should not cut off foreign aid to Israel, because they were Americas “greatest ally.” She then turned her attention to President Obama, criticizing him for distancing the United States from Israel and provoking greater hostility in the region. The congresswoman said that she believed America should look to Iraq and Libya to reimburse the United States for the role it played in liberating those nations.
With regard to negotiating with hostages, Rep. Bachman said, “The United States has done well because we have an absolute policy: We don’t negotiate.”
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: Discretionary spending for foreign aid is without Constitutional authority. Moreover, the idea that were would unilaterally invade a nation, restructure that nation at the pleasure of the United States and its allies, and then require that nation to pay for those efforts is an unconstitutional intervention.

Businessman and Columnist Herman Cain:

Mr. Cain reaffirmed his position that he did not believe that the United States should negotiate with terrorists. He said he would never “agree to letting hostages in Guantanamo Bay go.” Mr. Cain said with regard to foreign aid, his policy would be the same as Ronald Regan, which was “peace through strength and clarity. If we clarify who our friends are, clarify who our enemies are, and stop giving money to our enemies, then we ought to continue to give money to our friends, like Israel.”
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: Mr. Cain properly, but perhaps mistakenly, calls those held at Guantanamo Bay “hostages”. The US Constitution provides very specific limitations on how a court or tribunal of the United States must approach those deprived of life, liberty, or property. These rights are inalienable and given by God to all men, not only those who are under the purview of our Constitution. While those held at Guantanamo Bay may very well be guilty, they have been denied a constitutional due process of law.

Former Senator Rick Santorum (R-PA):

In response to Rep. Paul’s question, Sen. Santorum stated Ronald Reagan was right to exchange weapons for hostages in Iran, because Iran was a sovereign nation and was not a terrorist group.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: Iran was a sovereign nation over which terrorists had gained civil power. The exchange of hostages is a constitutional exchange. Yet the exchange of Foreign aid for hostages is likely unconstitutional.

Former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich (R-GA):

In response to Mr. Paul’s question, Mr. Gingrich said that he had worked on a film about Ronald Reagan in which there was “a very painful moment ... when he looks in the camera and says, ‘I didn’t think we did this. I’m against doing it. I went back and looked. The truth is, we did. It was an enormous mistake.’ And he thought the Iranian deals was a terrible mistake.”
Constitutional Grade: A
X. Leadership
The Constitution of the United States only authorizes the Executive office of the United States government to carry out a limited number of functions. Among these important functions are serving as Commander in Chief of the military, serving foreign policy and treaty power with Congress, upholding and enforcing the Constitution of the United States, and the power to veto acts of Congress. However, the President has absolutely no lawmaking authority. If the President exercises a power that is not specifically authorized in the United States Constitution, the exercise of government power is unauthorized and invalid.
This question will not be scored because it is wrongheaded. The idea that we should vote for candidates “who can win” over a candidate who truly represents us is a foolish consideration, especially early in a party primary. Such questions are typically asked to reaffirm and strengthen a particular candidate chosen by the political establishment.
Question #13: Which candidate has the best chance of beating Barack Obama and why?

Former Senator Rick Santorum (R-PA):

Sen. Santorum stated that less than 50 percent in a recent poll could name a single candidate. He pointed out that no one but him had won a swing state, that he beat democratic incumbents three times. He criticized Gov. Perry and Gov. Romney for running as liberals when it suited their political purpose. 

Constitutional Grade: N-A

Former Governor Mitt Romney (R-MA):

Gov. Romney said he believed Americans were looking for a candidate who could “beat President Obama” and can get the country on the right track. He pointed to his private sector experience as giving him an edge over the Democratic incumbent.
He answered criticism about his track record by pointing out that Gov. Perry had been the chairman of Al Gore’s presidential campaign. He called attention to his work as governor in bringing the unemployment rate down to 4.7 percent. He alleged that illegal immigrants created 40 percent of the jobs created in Texas. Moreover, he said that during his time as governor, the unemployment rate in Massachusetts was lower than that of Texas during Gov. Perry’s time as governor. He pointed out that, as governor of Massachusetts, he had worked hard to balance the budget every year and had created a rainy day fund of $2 billion by the time he left office.
Gov. Romney called attention to his experience as chief executive officer at four different companies; a financial services company, a consulting company, the Olympics, and, as governor of the state of Massachusetts.
Constitutional Grade: N/A

Governor Rick Perry (R-TX):

Gov. Perry suggested, “If you want to know how someone’s going to act in the future, you look at how they act in the past.” He called attention to the fact that, during Romney’s time as governor, Massachusetts was ranked 47th in job creation. During the same period of time, there were twenty times more jobs created in Texas. He said that Texas had created more jobs during the past two months than the state of Massachusetts had created during the entire four years that Gov. Romney held office.
Gov. Perry said America needs someone that would draw a bright contrast with President Obama, and that he was the man who drew the clearest contrast.
Constitutional Grade: N/A

Businessman and Columnist Herman Cain:

Mr. Cain said that he should be president. He contrasted his career with Governor Romney’s by saying that Mr. Romney’s experience was closer to Wall Street, while his experience was closer to main street. He said the biggest contrast between himself and President Obama would be that He would fix things while the president has broken things.
Constitutional Grade: N/A

U.S. Representative Michele Bachmann (R-MN):

Rep. Bachmann said “the cake is baked”; that Barack Obama will be a one-term President; and that Americans needed to listen to Ronald Reagan who said “no pastels, bold colors.” She claimed that she was the most different from Barack Obama compared to any one of his other challengers for the Presidency.
Constitutional Grade: N/A

Former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich (R-GA):

Rep. Gingrich said that maximizing bickering is probably not the road to the White House. He claimed to be the strongest candidate based on sheer substance and called voters to look at his 21st Century Contract with America. He said if he won the nomination, he would challenge president Obama to “meet the Lincoln-Douglas standard of seven three-hour debate, no time — no moderator, only a timekeeper.” He said that he was confident that he could beat President Obama.
Constitutional Grade: N/A



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