“But if the watchman see the sword come, and blow not the trumpet, and the people be not warned;

if the sword come, and take any person from among them, he is taken away in his iniquity;

but his blood will I require at the watchman's hand."

Ezekiel 33:6


"A righteous man falling down before the wicked is as a troubled fountain, and a corrupt spring."

Proverbs 25:26

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A Constitutional Report Card for the CBS\National Journal Republican Party Presidential Debate 11/12/2011



 A downloadable PDF of this report card is available here
(full report is also below).

BACKGROUND: On November 12, 2011, the eight leading Republican candidates took the stage in Spartanburg, South Carolina, for a Republican primary debate focusing on foreign policy and national security, and the overall role of the President. The purpose of this document is to provide a report card that will help Christian families evaluate the statements made by the candidates during that debate from a constitutional perspective. This report card is limited in its scope in that it only addresses issues specifically on the table during the November 12 debate. The scores are based on the actual statements made by the candidates during that debate. Candidates’ comments are taken at face value and evaluated without regard to their past statements or policy records, unless the candidates or those posing the questions specifically addressed the past statements and previous policy record of the candidate. Nothing in this report card should be construed as advocacy for a specific presidential candidate.
This report card is intended to score each of the eight candidates, on the basis of their own answers, on whether or not their proposals, as stated, are in keeping with their potential duty to uphold and defend the United States Constitution.
*Each candidate is scored on the basis of his or her answers in this debate alone. To score an (A) the candidates only need to provide an answer that will not in some way violate the United States Constitution.

I. Nuclear Arms

The Constitution of the United States grants both the executive branch and Congress the power to engage in foreign policy. The power to declare war is reserved solely to Congress. While the president is Commander in Chief of the armed forces, he does not have the authority to declare war or to engage in international conflicts without a declaration of war issued by Congress. Congress may raise and support armies, but no appropriation for that purpose shall be for a term longer than two years. The president also has what is sometimes referred to as the power of persuasion found under Article 2, Section 3 of the United States Constitution. In extraordinary circumstances, he may convene Congress for a special session. He may recommend that Congress consider certain measures that he judges to be necessary and expedient. The principles outlined in the Constitution favor a non-interventionist approach to foreign conflict. According to Article 1, Section 8, Congress also has the sole power “To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions; and to provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia....” A military intervention is only warranted when the United States is in imminent danger of harm caused by a domestic insurrection or foreign invasion. This standard requires that the United States actually suffer harm, or be in a position in which such harm is apparent and imminent. Military interventions against potential dangers are acts of aggression and are unconstitutional.
Question #1: This week, a U.N. nuclear watchdog agency provided additional credible evidence that Iran is pursuing a nuclear weapon. If you were president right now, what would you do specifically that this administration is not doing to prevent Iran from obtaining a nuclear weapon?

Businessman and Columnist Herman Cain:

Mr. Cain answered that it was important for Americans to know that the people of Iran are not the enemy, but the regime in Iran is the enemy. He said that he was opposed to the use of military force in Iran, but he would approach the issues in two ways. First he would support the opposition in Iran and second he would place economic pressure on Iran by striving for energy independence. This would also include calling on America’s allies to place economic sanctions on Iran. He also said that he would deploy America’s ballistic missile defense capable warships to that part of the world.
Constitutional Grade: C
Remarks: It is uncertain what type of intervention Mr. Cain would employ to support the opposition party in Iran. If the support came in the form of arm sales, sharing intelligence data, or a declaration of support in the international community, the activity could be constitutional. However, if the support came in the way of monetary aid, supplying military provisions, or troop deployment, the activity would be unconstitutional.

Former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney:

Governor Romney criticized President Barrack Obama for understanding the threat posed by Iran and doing nothing to prevent that threat. He said that the President should have publically supported the opposition when they took to the street. Second, the President should have placed crippling sanctions on Iran. Finally, Mr. Romney said the President should have made a credible threat of military action if they did not stand down on their nuclear program. Mr. Romney warned that if President Obama were elected to another term Iran will have nuclear weapons, but if he (Mr. Romney) were elected president, Iran would not have nuclear weapons.
Mr. Romney said that he would accomplish this by placing crippling sanctions on Iran, he would work with the opposition to encourage a regime change, and, if all else fails, he would take military action to prevent Iran from achieving its nuclear goals. He said that a Nuclear Iran is simply unacceptable. “I will make sure that the sanctions; diplomatic pressure, economic pressure, and support of insurgents within the country help them become dissuaded to get away from their nuclear ambition. And finally... have military presence there.”
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: The political and economic sanctions that Mr. Romney has mentioned are a constitutional exercise of the executive power. However, the former Governor fails to make a case for why the United States may engage in a preemptive war when the United States has not been harmed, and why the United States can justify allowing friends develop nuclear weapons, and forbidding enemies to develop them. Moreover, the President does not have the Constitutional authority to declare war.

Former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich:

Mr. Gingrich also criticized President Obama and said that both Mr. Cain and former Governor Romney’s answers were superior to the policy of President Obama. He said his approach would be to take out Iran’s scientists and break up their system all in a way that would be both covert and deniable. Secondly, he would coordinate with the Israelis to place pressure on Iran. Third, he said that he would use Cold War tactics like those used against the former Soviet Union, engaging in all means possible short of war to bring the regime down. Finally, Mr. Gingrich said if all else failed he would “take whatever steps necessary to break [Iran’s] capacity to have nuclear weapons.”
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: The means that Mr. Gingrich is advocating is unconstitutional and immoral. He advocates an interventionist approach based on assassinations, espionage, and lies. This is a foreign policy of murder and deceit. The United States has the capacity to keep Americans safe without engaging in such interventions.

Texas Representative Ron Paul:

Congressman Paul pointed out that the Commander in Chief is not vested with the authority to engage in or declare wars. The President of the United Sates is required to get a declaration of war from Congress. He pointed to the war with Iraq as an example, in which America engaged in an undeclared war in the basis of a suspicion that proved to be unfounded. After 10 years of death and destruction America is 4 trillion dollars in debt. He said if you decide it is necessary to go to war, the president must go to Congress, determine if America’s national security is threatened, get a declaration for war, fight it, win it, and get it over with.
Constitutional Grade: A
Remarks: Ron Paul explains the constitutional position that the Congress is the only body vested with the authority to declare war and that wars must be based on a threat to national security, and not a form of foreign aid and nation building.

Texas Governor Rick Perry:

Mr. Perry pointed out that one of the points that had not been raised was the fact that America has the ability to sanction the Iranian Central Bank immediately, which would shut down the nation’s economy. He said the American people needed to stand up and force the President to make that stand immediately.
Constitutional Grade: C
Remarks: Economic sanctions are a constitutional means of exercising foreign policy, but this also would require an act of Congress.

Former Senator Rick Santorum:

Mr. Santorum said that he had been working on Iran for a long time. He said that Iran is the biggest issue with national security that will confront the United States in the next year. He said that he had proposed giving money to the rebel forces in Iran in 2004 to support a pro-democracy movement and to place tough sanctions. He explained that despite opposition by President Bush the legislation was passed, but has since been defunded by Presidents Bush and Obama. He said that providing support for the pro-democracy movement was not enough. Mr. Santorum suggested that the Untied States should work with Israel to take out the nuclear capability of Iran through military force.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: Funding political movements in foreign nations are not only unconstitutional forms of forging aid, they are acts of aggression, which provide foreign nations with the justification to retaliate with force against the United States. Moreover, the support of a pro-democracy movement does not even reflect the constitutional ideals since the United States Constitution guarantees a republican form of government, and not a democratic one.
Question #8: If you eliminate the Department of Energy, what do you do with the nuclear weapons?

Texas Governor Rick Perry:

Mr. Perry said there were plenty of departments within the government that could assume oversight of nuclear energy.
Constitutional Grade: C
Remarks: The fact that America does have numerous bureaucracies into whom the nuclear programs could be placed is in itself a problem. The Constitution calls for small, localized government, and the federal government has not been granted the authority to regulate energy throughout the states. There are other nuclear programs, such as those centered on defense that are legitimate functions of the federal government.
Question #17: U.S. forces are coming under attack daily now from the enemy crossing over the border from Pakistan. As president, as commander in chief, would you order U.S. forces into Pakistan to clear out those safe havens of the enemy?

Businessman and Columnist Herman Cain:

Mr. Cain answered that this would be a decision he would have to make with the commanders on the ground, intelligence sources, and after having discussions with the officials in Afghanistan and Pakistan. He said that for the Afghan President to say that they would side with Pakistan when American soldiers are dying over there for them was a real problem. He said it was important to tread lightly because Pakistan was one of nine nations that have nuclear weapons.
Mr. Cain criticized President Obama for committing to a troop surge, but then pulling them back prematurely. He said that victory was not clearly defined.
Constitutional Grade: C

Former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney:

Mr. Romney said that Americans needed to understand that Pakistan is not a country like other countries. He said that it was close to being a failed state. He said that the nation had four centers of power that were to be found in the intelligence agencies, the military, the political leaders, and the fundamentalists. He said to commit troops to Pakistan in this type of environment would be highly incendiary. He alleged that the Pakistani government now is comfortable using our drones to pursue the biggest threats.
Moreover, Mr. Romney said he agreed with Mr. Perry that all foreign aid needed to start at zero. He said that with the various power bases, Pakistan needs to understand that they must allow the United States to go after terrorist networks, or go after them themselves to insure they will not destabilize Afghanistan.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: A decentralized or even a destabilized government does not provide the United States with adequate grounds to interfere with a foreign government. Moreover, collecting taxes from Americans and providing foreign aid is unconstitutional.
Question #18: “National Journal” and “The Atlantic” magazine reported that, for various reasons, some related to paranoia in Pakistan about what the United States might do, they are moving operational nuclear weapons in that country, unguarded, in trucks. If you were commander in chief, and intelligence came to you that one of those nuclear weapons was lost or possibly in the hands of terrorists, how would you respond?

Former Senator Rick Santorum:

Mr. Santorum said that he would respond by working with the Pakistani government and hope that the military, and not the radical faction, were in control. He would work with the military and the secret service to help them recover those weapons. He said that he would possibly use human and non-human intelligence, and Special Forces to recover the nuclear weapon. He said that he would need more specific information to answer the question with more detail. One thing he wanted to make clear: he would not act without working with the Pakistanis in the region.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: This is not a situation that requires or permits the United States to interfere.

Former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich:

Mr. Gingrich pointed out that one of the problems is that the United States does not have reliable or independent intelligence in places like Pakistan. America is forced to rely on their allies and friends in the region, who may or may not actually be friends. “We had better overhaul everything from rules of engagement to how we run the intelligence community, because we are in a very dangerous world.”
Constitutional Grade: C
Remarks: Intelligence is not in and of itself unconstitutional if connected to a military, non-policing purpose. Moreover, the world has always been dangerous, but the United States has never been better equipped to protect itself from foreign attacks.

Former Utah Governor John Huntsman:

Mr. Huntsman said that General Gianni was running Pakistan, not the president of that nation. He said that he would call in a SEAL team to take charge and find the nuclear weapon. We would have no choice, Mr. Huntsman asserted.
Constitutional Grade: F

II. Foreign War

The Constitution of the United States grants both the executive and Congress the power to engage in foreign policy. The power to declare war is reserved solely to Congress. While the president is Commander in Chief of the armed forces, he does not have the authority to declare war or to engage in international conflicts without a declaration of war issued by Congress. Congress may raise and support armies, but no appropriation for that purpose shall be for a term longer than two years. According to Article 1, Section 8, Congress also has the sole power “To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions; and to provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the Militia....” A war or conflict occurring without an act from Congress is unconstitutional. The Constitution provides no authority to provide foreign nations social welfare. The principles outlined in the Constitution favor a non-interventionist approach to foreign affairs.
Question #2: What’s your appraisal of the combat situation on the ground in Afghanistan today and what would you change?

Texas Governor Rick Perry:

Mr. Perry asserted that the mission in Afghanistan must be completed, but to provide timetables for withdraw is inappropriate, irresponsible, and threatens the lives of our military personnel. He said that he had been in contact with the commanders in the field in Afghanistan and he believed that progress was being made there. Mr. Perry said the primary challenge was training up the Afghan security forces to a level that they can protect the citizenry and keep the terrorist from using Afghanistan and Pakistan as a staging point for their activities.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: The war in Afghanistan is an unconstitutional war since it constitutes an undeclared act of war.

Former Senator Rick Santorum:

Mr. Santorum said that he would view a victory in Afghanistan to be accomplished if the Taliban has been disabled and they no longer pose a security threat to the United States.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: The standard that Mr. Santorum asserts is not a reasonably objective one since the tragedy of 9/11 proved that anyone with the ability to fly an airplane could pose a security threat to the United States. By this standard, a declaration of war could be made against any nation, or in this case against any group of individuals on the basis of affiliation. Ironically enough this was the same type of standard that Rome used from time to time to justify the persecution of Christians.

Congresswoman Michele Bachmann:

Mrs. Bachmann said that the 30,000-troop surge was a success, but criticized President Obama for hesitating and for sending only 30,000 troops instead of 40,000. She said the decision to withdraw troops by September 2012 was a fatal decision. She said that it would be more difficult to get our allies to work with us.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks:

Former Utah Governor John Huntsman:

Mr. Huntsman suggested that the spikes in casualties in Afghanistan were caused by a lack of security in certain parts of the country. He said that he believed that America had achieved its objective and that it was time to bring the troops home from Afghanistan. He pointed out that in 2004 Afghanistan had free elections. Since that time Al Qaeda has been dismantled, the Taliban has been uprooted and Osama Bin Laden has been killed. He said the future of the nation was not in Afghanistan or Iraq. The former Governor said that Americans must face the new challenges in economics and education that will play out in the Asia-Pacific region.
Mr. Huntsman said that he would leave a number of troops behind for nation building purposes. Enhanced Special Forces would remain in Afghanistan for the purpose of gathering intelligence and providing rapid response. He also said that he would commit to training an Afghan national army. “We are fighting an asymmetric threat, a counterterror threat. Not only there, but in Waziristan and every other corner of the world. And we need to prepare for that as a reality of our 21st Century foreign policy.”
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: While he is committed to withdrawing troops, Mr. Huntsman is committed to leaving a contingent behind for nation building purposes. This is an unconstitutional use of the American military.
Question #3: Do you support a smaller footprint in Afghanistan? And secondarily, is it time or would it ever be time for the United States to negotiate with the Taliban?

Former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney:

Mr. Romney said that Afghanistan may decide how they will approach the terrorism, but it is America’s policy that we do not negotiate with terrorists. Mr. Romney said the most important thing was to secure the victory of our soldiers. He pointed out that commanders in Afghanistan are saying that they may see the justification of withdrawing 30,000 to 40,000 troops during the next year. He suggested that President Obama had set the goal of withdrawing the troops by September in anticipation of the next election. He criticized the President for making the decision to pull troops out in the middle of the fighting season. The former governor said that a December withdraw with a 2014 timetable is the right decision. He said that a small contingent of support forces would remain in Afghanistan.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: Mr. Romney would continue the war in Afghanistan and leave soldiers behind for nation building purposes. There is no constitutional justification for these kinds of activities.

Former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich:

Mr. Gingrich answered that he would not negotiate with terrorists. He continued by saying that the issue was deeper than anyone understood. The reason why the Taliban survive is because they have found sanctuary in Pakistan. He suggests that the Taliban would never be defeated as long as they can hide. Mr. Gingrich suggested the problem would persist unless we also expand the war into Pakistan and Iran.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: Not only would Mr. Gingrich continue an unconstitutional war, he would expand the war efforts into two new fronts.
Question #4: In your judgment, is Pakistan a friend or foe?

Businessman and Columnist Herman Cain:

Mr. Cain said that it was unclear at this point whether Pakistan is a friend or foe. He pointed out that there are many questions that need to be answered and America’s relationship with Pakistan needs to be re-evaluated. Mr. Cain said that, as president he would want to know what kind of commitments Pakistan is wiling to make to assure the United States of America that they are friendly. Specifically, he would want to see troop commitments from the Pakistani government, and if they are willing to come to a regional agreement with the United States.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: This plan of action is predicated on the validity of nation building. If Pakistan desired to remain neutral and refused to commit troops or enter an agreement with the United States regarding the governing of their own region, it would be viewed as a threat. The United States cannot require another nation to commit troops to accomplish their own conquest of the region; nor may the United States require that Pakistan agree with the plans that the United State has for their own region. The Constitution does not allow for American Imperialism.

III. Foreign Aid

The Constitution of the United States grants both the executive branch and Congress the power to engage in foreign policy. The power to declare war is reserved solely to Congress. While the President is Commander in Chief of the armed forces, he does not have the authority to declare war or to engage in international conflicts without a declaration of war issued by Congress. Congress may raise and support armies, but no appropriation for that purpose shall be for a term longer than two years. Power over the federal budget, expenditures, and debts are vested solely in the Congress of the United States. The Constitution provides no authority to provide foreign nations with social welfare. The principles outlined in the Constitution favor a non-interventionist approach to foreign affairs.
Question #5: What is the proper role of the United States through foreign aid and other interventions?

Texas Governor Rick Perry:

Mr. Perry said that the government was not in control of Pakistan, but that the military was in control. He said that the consideration of Pakistan is part of a deeper issue of foreign aid. He said that Pakistan was sending a clear message that they did not want our foreign aid, because they are not being honest with the United States and our soldiers’ lives are at risk as a result. He said that, as president, he would send a clear message to every other nation by starting at zero dollars in foreign aid. “Then we’ll have a conversation in this country about whether or not a penny of our taxpayer dollars needs to go into those countries.... and it’s time for us as a country to say no to foreign aid to countries that don’t support the United States of America.”
When later asked if his “zero aid” policy would include Israel, the Governor answer that it would. Every nation would start at zero. He said that because Israel is an ally his guess would be that we would fund them at a substantial level. He said that the same approach might be useful to determine the budget for federal agencies.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: The Constitution does not allow for taxes to be raised creating an international welfare system.

Congresswoman Michele Bachmann:

Mrs. Bachmann disagreed with Governor Perry pointing out that Pakistan has a nuclear weapon and that terrorists are closer to that nuclear bomb than they are in any other nation. While she would reduce the amount of foreign aid given to many nations, she would not pull the foreign aid from Pakistan. She said that the next president needs to understand the intricacies involved with the Middle East. She warned that there are indicators that Iran and Pakistan appear to be staging a nuclear war with Israel. She concluded by criticizing President Obama for showing his support for Occupy Wall Street, but he has yet to show his support for Israel.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: The Constitution does not allow for taxes to be raised creating an international welfare system, nor does the Constitution allow the United States to commit American troops solely on the behalf of foreign nations such as Israel.

Former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich:

The former Speaker said that what Governor Perry had said made a lot of sense. He said that before handing over billions of dollars automatically, Congress would start by starting at zero and then asking for an explanation concerning why the nation should receive any aid. He pointed to the fact that Pakistan had harbored Osama Bin Laden for at least six years and said this is a good indication that they should not receive any foreign aid.
When asked about how he would approach Egypt, Mr. Gingrich said that eliminating foreign aid for Egypt was a possibility. He said that the degree to which the Arab Spring has become anti-Christian bothers him a great deal. “I would certainly have the State Department intervening on behalf of the Coptic Christians, who are being persecuted under the new system, having their churches burned, having people killed. And I’d be pretty insistent that we are not going to be supportive of a regime, which is explicitly hostile to religions other than Islam.”
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: Mr. Gingrich provides a vivid example of the problem with the current foreign aid policy. Billions of dollars are spent in an unconstitutional manner to support nations who show animosity to the United States and persecute Coptic Christians.

Former Senator Rick Santorum:

Mr. Santorum said that Pakistan must be a friend of the United States because they are a nuclear power. He expressed concern that if the wrong people gained control of the country, the situation in Pakistan could become like the situation in Iran. He suggested that America must engage Pakistan as a friend and work through the current difficulties. The moderator pressed Mr. Santorum pointing out that only a few weeks ago a Pakistani backed terrorist network, the Hikani Network, laid siege to the NATO headquarters and the U.S. embassy in Kabul for 20 hours.
Mr. Santorum answered that a lot of Pakistanis and most of the government don’t back the Hikani Network. He said that the United States needed to continue to send monetary aid to Pakistan. He pointed out that the aid relationship also came with military aid. Aid relationship created jobs because the money is spent in the United States for military hardware, and builds a dependency on American weapon systems.
Constitutional Grade: F
Question #6: In your judgment, do you believe Governor Romney has the ability to think outside the box and change United States’ national security or foreign policy perspectives?

Former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich:

Mr. Gingrich said that he did not desire to comment on that. He said that while the candidates may make such comments on radio shows, at the debate they are all talking to the American people about why each of them is more fit for the presidency than Barack Obama. He said that Mitt Romney would be a vast improvement on the Obama administration. When asked by the moderator how he would think outside the box, Mr. Gingrich answered that he would use Cold War strategies against North Korea and Iran. He said he would also adopt a strong policy toward the United Nations. He said that he would explicitly repudiate Agenda 21. In addition, he said that he would apply Lean Six Sigma to the Pentagon to liberate money and rebuild the nation. He criticized the President for shrinking the size of the Navy to the point it is incapable of doing its job globally.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: Again Mr. Gingrich calls for covert Cold War strategies that involve murder, espionage, and deceit.

Former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney:

Mr. Romney said his foreign policy was pretty straightforward. He said he would be guided by the conviction that this century must be an American century in which America has the strongest values, the strongest economy, and the strongest military. “An American century means the century where America leads the free world and the free world leads the entire world.”
He criticized President Obama for thinking that America is just another nation and failing to recognize that America is an exceptional nation. He contrasted himself with the President and said that if he were president he would conduct foreign policy through strength and would do everything with the intent of making America stronger. He said that he would use whatever means necessary within the law to protect American citizens and their rights.
Constitutional Grade: B

IV. Interventionism

The Constitution of the United States grants both the executive branch and Congress the power to engage in foreign policy. The power to declare war is reserved solely to Congress. While the president is Commander in Chief of the armed forces, he does not have the authority to declare war or to engage in international conflicts without a declaration of war issued by Congress. Congress may raise and support armies, but no appropriation for that purpose shall be for a term longer than two years. The president also has what is sometimes referred to as the power of persuasion found under Article 2, Section 3 of the United States Constitution. In extraordinary circumstances, he may convene Congress for a special session. He may recommend that Congress consider certain measures that he judges to be necessary and expedient. The principles outlined in the Constitution favor a non-interventionist approach to foreign conflict. According to Article 1, Section 8, Congress also has the sole power “To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions; and to provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the Militia....” A military intervention is only warranted when the United States is in imminent danger of harm caused by a domestic insurrection or foreign invasion. This standard requires that the United States actually suffer harm, or be in a position in which such harm is apparent and imminent. Military interventions against potential dangers are acts of aggression and are unconstitutional.
Questions#13: Would you describe what you think is happening in the Arab Spring? How, as president, can you make it work for the United States and not against us?

Businessman and Columnist Herman Cain:

Mr. Cain criticized the Obama administration for mishandling the revolutions in Libya, Egypt, and Yemen. He warned that the United States’ relationship with Egypt might not survive. He explained that when President Obama backed the opposition it turned out that the opposition was more of the Muslim Brotherhood, which could now gain a majority in the government. He also criticized President Obama for saying that the president of Yemen had to go when he was one of our allies who helped the United State to fight al-Qaeda. “This president has been on the wrong side in nearly every situation in the Arab world, which has basically done nothing except to put that entire thing at risk.”
Constitutional Grade: C
Remarks: Mr. Cain’s criticism is warranted, but his answer is still predicated on the assumption that the United States should take sides in these issues.
Question #14: At least 3,500 civilians have been slaughtered in Syria. Today, the Arab League voted to suspend Syria. If the opposition requested military assistance, covert smuggling, or a no-fly zone, would you authorize either or both?

Former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich:

Mr. Gingrich commended the Arab League for suspending Syria. He also criticized President Obama for turning against President Mubarak who had been a faithful ally for years. This only signals to the world that the United States cannot be trusted to back our allies. He criticized the State Department for being soft on Assad, an ally of Iran. He said that if he were president he would actively take the steps necessary to end his regime, most of which would be covert. He said that a no-fly zone would not be necessary.
Constitutional Grade: F

Texas Representative Ron Paul:

Congressman Paul disagreed with Mr. Cain and Mr. Gingrich and said that intervention would be a big mistake. The United States should allow the Syrians to deal with their own country.
When pressed by the moderator about the 3,500 dead in Syria, Mr. Paul responded that the Soviets and Chinese had killed hundreds of millions in the last century, but the United States did not feel morally compelled to try to end it. He said the situation was a tragedy, but an American intervention that props up another dictator causes trouble for America. He said that America does not need to lose any more troops; it is a very costly bad idea.
Constitutional Grade: A

Former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney:

Mr. Romney said that it was time for the Assad dictatorship to end. He said he supported using covert operations such as those suggested by Mr. Gingrich. He said that he disagreed with Ron Paul because Syria was the only Arab ally of Iran and was arming Hezbollah. This provides significant access for Iran. Because of the aspirations of Iran, Mr. Romney argued, it was important to intervene and support a regime change. In the process these activities would be helpful to our allies like Saudi Arabia and Turkey.
Constitutional Grade: F

V. Military Policy

The Constitution of the United States grants both the president and Congress the joint authority to engage in foreign policy. However, the president is not authorized to enforce treaties without the ratification of Congress. Moreover, Congress has exclusive authority to tax international trade. The power to declare war is reserved solely to Congress. While the president is Commander in Chief of the armed forces, he does not have the authority to declare war or to engage in international conflicts without a declaration of war issued by Congress. Congress may raise and support armies, but no appropriation for that purpose shall be for a term longer than two years. The Constitution provides no authority to provide foreign nations social welfare. The principles outlined in the Constitution favor a non-interventionist approach to foreign affairs
Question #7: Would you listen to your generals for their advice before making decisions as Commander in Chief? How will you know when you should overrule your generals?

Businessman and Columnist Herman Cain:

Mr. Cain answered that it was important that you surround yourself with the right people. He said that you would know you are making the right decision when you have considered all the facts and the alternatives. He said that because he will have multiple people offering different recommendations, it would provide a greater opportunity to make the right decisions. He said that while he will listen to his generals, it would be up to the Commander in Chief to make the decisions.
Constitutional Grade: A

Former Senator Rick Santorum:

Mr. Santorum said he would enter the presidency with a very clear agenda. He said that he would gather people together who share his point of view. He said that while he was in the Senate he did not hire people who did not share his point of view. He said that he was who the American people were electing, someone who is crystal clear and does not mince words. He said that he would then follow through.
When the Moderator asked about what his agenda would entail, Mr. Santorum answered that the number one issue would be to keep Iran from obtaining a nuclear weapon. He said that he would also accomplish this through covert activity. “There have been scientists turning up dead in Russia and in Iran. There have been computer viruses. There have been problems at their facility. I hope that the United States has been involved with that.”
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: Not only are these activities unconstitutional they are also criminal.

Texas Governor Rick Perry:

Mr. Perry pointed out that he has been Commander in the state of Texas for 10 years. He said if there was someone who had experience making decisions, it was he. He said that he had handled natural disasters, deployed troops to combat zones, and dealt with generals. He said that he would surround himself with individuals at the highest levels at the Department of Defense, both on the military side and on the civilian side. He said that from day one Americans would know that they are secure and this would include along the southern border of Mexico.
Constitutional Grade: B
Question #12: Almost half of the federal budget goes to military-related expenditures. Should we increase spending, especially in a debt crisis?

Congresswoman Michele Bachmann:

Mrs. Bachmann explained that military expenditures could be reduced especially in the area of how the military finances procurements. Weapons manufacturers are rewarded based on the length of time it takes to produce weapons. She said that American needed to move toward a fixed cost system. She also said that Tricare also needed to be reformed. The Congresswoman said that she did not want to cut benefits for the military, but that it needed to be modernized. She said that Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid also needed to be modernized. She said that Tricare, Medicare, Medicaid, and Social Security would collapse under the weight of Obamacare. Mrs. Bachman said if she were elected president she would repeal Obamacare.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: While military spending should be cut, Mrs. Bachmann suggests that unconstitutional programs such as Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid should be saved.

VI. Torture

The Fifth Amendment of the Constitution of the United States provides that no person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. The Eighth Amendment provides that excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. The torturing of suspects is a violation of the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution since the suspects are held and forced to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime without due process. Torture is also a violation of the Eighth Amendment to the Constitution since it constitutes both a cruel and an unusual punishment. The bill of rights governs all United States courts both foreign and domestic. The only right that is waved for a military tribunal in times of war is the right to an indictment by a grand jury.
Question #9: What is your stance on torture?

Businessman and Columnist Herman Cain:

Mr. Cain answered that in keeping with the procedure of the military, he did not agree with torture, period. However, he said that he would leave it up to military leaders to determine what is torture and what is not torture. Mr. Cain said that he believed that waterboarding was an enhanced interrogation technique and that he would reinstate a policy that permits waterboarding.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: It is interesting to point out that earlier Mr. Cain had said that while he would listen to the advice of his generals, he would be making all of the decisions. However, when it comes to an issue like torture, he said he would allow the military leaders to decide. Waterboarding is an obstruction to constitutional standards of justice. The purpose for which the Constitution forbids coerced confessions is because coerced confessions are unreliable, and are a violation of life and liberty.

Congresswoman Michele Bachmann:

Mrs. Bachmann said that she would also be willing to use waterboarding, saying that she believed it was very effective in gaining information. She criticized President Obama for allowing the A.C.L.U. to run the C.I.A., and alleged that today when a terrorist is interdicted there was no jail for them. “We have nowhere to take them. We have no C.I.A. interrogations anymore. It is as though we have decided we want to lose in the War on Terror under President Obama. That’s not my strategy. My strategy will be that the United States will be victorious in the War on Terror.”
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: Mrs. Bachmann’s allegations against President Obama are false. The number of “secret” military prisons has actually increased under President Obama. New prisons have opened in Afghanistan, Somalia, and on the island of Diego Garcia located in the Indian Ocean. The C.I.A. is permitted to carry out interrogations at these facilities.

Texas Representative Ron Paul:

Congressman Paul pointed out that torture is illegal under the laws of the United States, is illegal by international law, and is immoral. He said that waterboarding is torture and is very impractical as a means of gathering reliable evidence. He asked why anyone would accept the position that it was right to torture 100 people because you know one of them may have information. “I think it’s uncivilized practice, and has no practical advantages, and is really un-American to accept a principal that we will torture people that we capture.”
Constitutional Grade: A

Former Utah Governor John Huntsman:

Mr. Huntsman said that America has a “name brand” in the world and has values. He pointed out that he had lived overseas four different times and has done business overseas. He warned that America diminished its standing in the world when it failed to protect those values of liberty, democracy, human rights, and open markets, when we torture. He said that he believed waterboarding is torture and that we should not do it. “We dilute ourselves down like a whole lot of other countries. And we lose that ability to project values that a lot of people in corners of this world are still relying on the United States to stand up for them.”
Constitutional Grade: C
Remarks: Mr. Huntsman holds to a constitutional standard on the issue of torture, but appeals to the importance of taking the moral high ground as America engages in unconstitutional nation building around the world. Moreover, democracy was criticized and rejected as a form of government by the framers of the Constitution. The Constitution calls for and insures a republican form of government.

VII. Assassination

The Fifth Amendment of the Constitution of the United States provides that no person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. Moreover, the Sixth Amendment to the Constitution provides that in all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation, to confront the witnesses against him, have an opportunity to obtain witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense. The Eighth Amendment provides that excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. The assassination of suspects in the United States is a violation of due process. The only right that is waved for a military tribunal in times of war is the right to an indictment by a grand jury.
Moreover, as Commander in Chief of the armed forces, he does not have the authority to declare war or to engage in international conflicts without a declaration of war issued by Congress. The principles outlined in the Constitution favor a non-interventionist approach to foreign conflict. According to Article 1, Section 8, Congress also has the sole power “To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions; and to provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the Militia....” A military intervention is only warranted when the United States is in imminent danger of harm caused by a domestic insurrection or foreign invasion. This standard requires that the United States actually suffer harm, or be in a position in which such harm is apparent and imminent. Military interventions against potential dangers are acts of aggression and are unconstitutional.
Question #10: President Obama recently ordered the death of an American citizen who was suspected of terrorist activity overseas. Is it appropriate for the American president, on the president’s say-so alone, to order the death of an American citizen suspected of terrorism?

Former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney:

Mr. Romney said that he absolutely agrees with the ordered deaths of American citizens who align themselves with groups who declare war on the United States. If an American takes up arms during a war against the United States he is fair game.
Constitutional Grade: F

Former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich:

Mr. Gingrich was carful to point out that the death warrant was not signed against a mere suspect, but an individual who had been found guilty of actively seeking the death of Americans. When the moderator pointed out that the individual had not been found guilty by a court of law, Mr. Gingrich retorted that he was found guilt by a panel that considered the matter and reported back to the President. Gingrich and the moderator disagreed that the individual was tried under the rule of law.
Mr. Gingrich said that if persons engage in war against the United States they are enemy combatants. They do not have civil liberties and cannot go to court. Mr. Gingrich suggested that there were two levels of justice; civil and criminal defense are at one level, while acts of war are on another level. “It is an act of war and should be dealt with as an act of war and the correct thing in an act of war is to kill people who are trying to kill you.”
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: There is no constitutional justification for the idea that there are two “levels” of justice. The Fifth Amendment to the Constitution only suspends the requirement for an indictment by a grand jury in military cases, but does not suspend the right to due process in a court of law. There is a real danger to notions such as those offered here by Mr. Gingrich, if due process can be suspended for those deemed to be enemies of the state then the same argument can, and has, been used to justify assassinations of American citizens in the United States without due process of law.

VIII. Trade War with China

The Constitution of the United States grants both the president and Congress the joint authority to engage in foreign policy. However, the president is not authorized to enforce treaties without the ratification of Congress. Moreover, Congress has exclusive authority to tax international trade. The power to declare war is reserved solely to Congress. While the president is Commander in Chief of the armed forces, he does not have the authority to declare war or to engage in international conflicts without a declaration of war issued by Congress. Congress may raise and support armies, but no appropriation for that purpose shall be for a term longer than two years. According to Article 1, Section 8, Congress also has the sole power “To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions; and to provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the Militia....” A war or conflict occurring without an act from Congress is unconstitutional. The Constitution provides no authority to provide foreign nations social welfare. The principles outlined in the Constitution favor a non-interventionist approach to foreign affairs.
Question #11: According to U.S. officials, China is using cyber-attacks to steal billions of dollars of intellectual property that is critical to this nation’s economic success. Are we, sir, engaged in financial warfare with China?

Texas Governor Rick Perry:

Mr. Perry said there were some people who are saying that the next century will be a Chinese century. He pointed out that there were similar statements made about Russia during the Reagan presidency. He said that China, like Russia, would end up on the ash heap of history if they did not change their virtues and build honesty.
Mr. Perry said the issue with cyber security will be one of the great issues of the next president and that he would call the private sector to work along with the government to pull all resources to fight cyber terror.
Constitutional Grade: A
Remarks: Cyber attacks from the Chinese government pose a serious threat to America’s economy and national security. This is a serious issue because China’s cyber attacks have risen to a level that constitutes a foreign act of aggression against the United States that could lead to a justifiable war.

Former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney:

Mr. Romney answered that China had an interest in trade and wants to relocate 20 million people each year from farms to cities. He pointed out that they want to have success in the global markets and they need access to our markets. He said he would condition China’s access to our markets on their ability to play by the rules. “They can’t hack into our computer systems and steal from our government. They can’t steal from corporations. They can’t take patents and designs, intellectual property, and duplicate them, counterfeit them and sell them around the world.”
He said he would also hold them accountable for manipulating their currency. He criticized President Barack Obama for being soft on China and allowing them to be dishonest while expanding on their ability to steal information from our computer systems, our intellectual property, and from our military.
When asked by the moderator what he would do to make China do these things, he said he would identify them as a currency manipulator and bring an action against them before the World Trade Organization. He said such an action would allow the United States to selectively apply tariffs in areas we believe they are stealing form us. To those who are afraid this will start a trade war, Mr. Romney, pointed out that we are already in a trade war and American jobs are suffering as a result.
Constitutional Grade: C
Remarks: The Congress of the United States does not need to receive permission from the World Trade Organization to levy tariffs on China.

Former Utah Governor John Huntsman:

Mr. Huntsman suggested that things look different when you are on the ground in China. Mr. Huntsman disagreed with Mr. Romney that taking China to the W.T.O. for currency manipulation was a good idea. He said that a trade war with China would only hurt small business, exporters, and agriculture producers here in the United States. He said that America should instead reach out to its allies and constituencies within China, young people. He said there are 500 million Internet users in China and over 80 million bloggers who are bringing about change that will eventually take China down.
Constitutional Grade: C
Remarks: It is unclear how Huntsman intends to reach out to young people, and seems to tend toward interventionism to “take China down”. China’s plundering of military secrets and the theft and counterfeiting of intellectual property are certainly grounds for a declaration of war. It is not clear whether or not this sort of subversive intervention is constitutional, but Mr. Huntsman’s resolve is very weak with regard to China.

IX. Due Process

The Fifth Amendment of the Constitution of the United States provides that no person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. Moreover, the Sixth Amendment to the Constitution provides that in all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation, to confront the witnesses against him, have an opportunity to obtain witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense. The Eighth Amendment provides that excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. The only right that is waved for a military tribunal in times of war is the right to an indictment by a grand jury.
Question #15: Within days of taking office, President Obama, by executive order, stopped the CIA from using classified enhanced interrogation techniques that are not waterboarding. There’s a presumption that every person at Gitmo, under the Obama administration, should go into civilian court, not military commission. And the Obama administration recently said that any future captors in the War on Terror would not go to Gitmo. Would you continue these policies? Why?

Businessman and Columnist Herman Cain:

Mr. Cain said that he would reverse all three policies. He would keep Guantanamo Bay open. He said that he would allow for the military to use enhanced interrogation techniques. “They are terrorists. Pampering terrorists isn’t something that we ought to do.”
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: Guantanamo Bay is a facility where the United States government is engaged in illegal and unconstitutional detainment of individuals who have not been convicted of any crime. The individuals held there might be criminals, but they may not be deprived of life, liberty, or property until they have been proven guilty in a court of law.

Former Senator Rick Santorum:

Mr. Santorum said he agreed with Mr. Cain. He said it was essential to leave Guantanamo Bay open. He said that the United State needed to use all of its enhanced interrogation techniques. He said these methods had been proven to work and were crucial to the War on Terror. Moreover, he said using civilian courts is the worst idea he had ever heard because civilian courts are for those protected by the Constitution. He said enemy combatants are not protected by the Constitution. Mr. Santorum argued that the constitutional protections, and those contained in the Geneva Convention, only apply to American citizens and our allies, and not to foreign enemies.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: There is no constitutional justification for Mr. Santorum’s argument. The principles of the Constitution are intended to prevent the United States from depriving anyone of life, liberty, or property without due process. The United States by its very nature is bound to the ideals and convictions of the Constitution. There is no branch or activity of government that is above and beyond the limitations of the Constitution. Therefore the right to due process is to be applied as a matter of national and constitutional conviction, and not at the discretion of government. Moreover, if the Geneva Convention did not apply to how a nation treated an enemy, then the entire treaty would be striped of any meaning.

Texas Representative Ron Paul:

Congressman Paul said the situation was a mess because America has adopted a bad foreign policy. He criticized the government of the United States for pretending to be at war when no war has been declared; nevertheless, we have gone to war against a tactic (terrorism) and there are supposedly no limits to it. He said that as a result we have created monstrosities in which our government does things outside of the law and engages in things like allowing the president to decide who is assassinated. He pointed out that it is not just foreign threats but also that three American citizens have been assassinated. He said this was lawless and that American citizens should fear that someday we will be subject to those same courts. Mr. Paul warned that if we do not work within the context of the law it would turn out bad for everyone. “Now we can be assassinated by somebody that we don’t even like to run our medical care, and giving this power to the president to be the prosecutor, the executor, the judge and the jury. We better look at that carefully before you automatically endorse something like that.”
Constitutional Grade: A

Texas Governor Rick Perry:

Mr. Perry criticized Congressman Paul by arguing that our military personnel are confronted with an enemy that will use any means to kill them. If America cannot use any technique necessary to extract information to save the lives of those fighting in the military, it is a travesty. He said that while he did not support the use of torture, he did support the use of “enhanced interrogations.”
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: The standard that Mr. Perry applies is a utilitarian standard and is not a constitutional standard. This answer reflects a government that is ruled by emergency and not by the rule of law.

Congresswoman Michele Bachmann:

Mrs. Bachmann also criticized Congressman Paul by alleging that he opposed the order to kill Osama Bin Laden. She argued that the execution of Awlaki’s sixteen-year-old son was justified, because Awlaki was also killed.
Constitutional Grade: F

Texas Representative Ron Paul:

Congressman Paul responded by pointing out that Mrs. Bachmann was wrong because he has voted in favor of the authority to go after Osama Bin Laden. He said he was upset that it had taken so long, because the American military had been diverted. He pointed out that going after Osama Bin Laden is a much different issue than the issue of assassinating American citizens.
Moreover, Mr. Paul reminded the panel that, “over 300 individuals were tried in civilian courts here and were charged with terrorism here. Most of them are in jail. I don’t think we should give up so easily on our rule of law.”
Constitutional Grade: A

X. Economic Policy

The Constitution of the United States places the power over the federal budget for expenditures and debts solely on the Congress of the United States. The president has no legislative power and is bound to faithfully execute the laws passed by Congress. However, the president also has what is sometimes referred to as the power of persuasion found under Article 2, Section 3 of the United States Constitution. He may recommend that Congress consider certain measures that he judges to be necessary and expedient. In extraordinary circumstances, he may convene Congress for a special session. Congress has a limited number of powers, under Article 1, Section 8 that residually effect industry and national economy. First, Congress has the power over the federal purse through the taxing and spending clause. Second, Congress is granted the power to regulate interstate commerce between the states. Under the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, the commerce power was unconstitutionally expanded to include intrastate commerce also, along with virtually any activity commercial or non-commercial that could be shown to remotely effect commerce. This unconstitutional expansion of power has been used by Congress to regulate areas previously unreachable by the federal power under the Constitution. The Constitution provides no authority to provide for social welfare or to spend money for an unconstitutional purpose.
Question #16: Federal spending and debt are not only our greatest economic problems; they’re our largest national security problem. Yet the President and the Congress continue to spend and borrow at record levels. Just adjusting the spending on existing federal programs will not solve the problem. What federal functions will you eliminate or return to the states in order to balance our budget?

Former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney:

Mr. Romney pointed out that the current administration was spending about 25% of the economy at the federal level. Mr. Romney proposed that he would bring the cap down to 20% in his first term in office. He said that this would require eliminating a lot of programs that we like, but simply cannot afford. He said that he would begin by eliminating Obamacare, a savings of $95 billion. He said that he would also cut the Endowment for the Humanities, the Endowment for the Arts, and Public Broadcasting. He said these programs were not essential and we could no longer borrow money from China to pay for them.
Moreover, Mr. Romney said that he would return Medicaid over to the states and allow the states to govern it, a savings of $100 billion each year. Finally, he said he would attempt to make the government more productive by cutting personnel by 10%, and link the pay of government employees to the pay of those in the private sector.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: Mr. Romney would make cuts to several unconstitutional programs, but would continue unconstitutional programs such as Medicare. Moreover, 20 percent of the GDP is much more than what is required in a constitutional government.

Former Utah Governor John Huntsman:

Mr. Huntsman said that our most significant national security threat is the national debt. He pointed out that the national debt is at 70 of America’s GDP and was moving up, while Japan’s debt is at 100 percent of their GDP, Greece’s debt is at 170 percent of their GDP, and Italy’s debt is at 120 percent. He suggested that the solution to America’s debt problem was the Ryan Plan. Mr. Huntsman said that he would send Medicaid back to the states. He said he would move education closer to the states. He also said that some economic development functions should also be moved closer to the states.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: The Ryan Plan reflects Marxist notions of class warfare and the redistribution of wealth. Moreover, Mr. Huntsman suggests the unconstitutional continuance of unconstitutional programs such as Medicaid.

Former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich:

Mr. Gingrich said that he believed that there were four interlocking national security problems; (1) The debt and deficit; (2) Energy; (3) Manufacturing; and (4) Science and Technology. He said that there should be an education program for those who were on unemployment so that no one receives money for doing nothing. He alleged that it would save money and enhance human capital. He suggested opening up offshore drilling so that gas prices can come down. In addition, the Charleston Port could be modernized with the royalties and create more jobs.
He pointed out that he had balanced the budget four consecutive years while he was in office. He said he would bring unemployment down to four percent.
Constitutional Grade: F
Remarks: Mr. Gingrich suggests that the problems that exist should be fixed by adding more government bureaucracy to the problem. To unemployment he wants to begin an education program. This is a classic example of attempting to fix an unconstitutional problem, by adding another unconstitutional problem.

Congresswoman Michele Bachmann:

Mrs. Bachmann pointed out that the government added $203 billion in debt in the month of October, but the last time the Republicans controlled the budget the government added $160 billion that year. She sad that she would make cuts by taking a look at “The Great Society” introduced by Lyndon Baines Johnson. The Great Society has pushed us into a modern welfare state. She pointed out that China was growing and that they did not have food stamps or social security. The Chinese do not have to pay FDC. She would repeal The Great Society legislation.
Constitutional Grade: A
Question #19: There is a crisis in Europe over debt, particularly in Italy and in Greece. And there is the threat of contagion onto Wall Street and U.S. banks. How do you prevent the Euro crisis from becoming a problem in the United States?

Former Utah Governor John Huntsman:

Mr. Huntsman said that in Europe there were two problems. First, Europe is our second largest export market second only to Canada. He said that if the economic crisis spreads in Europe, they will buy less and Americans will lose jobs unless we find other markets. Second, the crisis will spread through the banking system to the point where it will hit us in the United States. When banks are too big to fail in this country, there will be trouble.
Constitutional Grade: C
Remarks: Mr. Huntsman does not answer the questions, but instead elaborated on the emergency. The worst policies in government are enacted during these types of emergencies. The Constitution was intended to safe guard against the types of crisis America is experiencing and to get the nation through hard times.

Texas Governor Rick Perry:

Mr. Perry pointed out that the French and Germans have the means to deal with the debt crisis in the Eurozone. He said that the Euro was established to compete with the American dollar, but now they are in trouble because of overspending.
Constitutional Grade: A
Remarks: Mr. Perry relates a constitutional position. The Constitution does not allow the United State to intervene in the European debt crisis.



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